cryogenics - Basic priciples, technical applications and trends

Cryogenics - Principles and techniques, development status and trends

Discover the fundamentals of cryogenics and its applications in this forum. You will learn how to generate low temperature environments with various refrigeration systems and refrigerants. After this advanced training, you will be familiar with the current state of the art of cryogenics and know how to safely design and construct a cryogenic systems.

Safely design, construction, and operate cryogenic systems

Cryogenics - also known as low temperature technology - is becoming increasingly important in industrial applications. Fields of application include storing liquid hydrogen as fuel for fuel cell vehicles. High-field superconducting magnets are another application area. In this case, liquid helium cools magnetic coils.

During the 3-day "Cryogenics” Forum, you will learn how to generate low temperatures and how to thermodynamically balance cooling circuits by using different refrigeration systems. After participating, you will know: 

  • which refrigerants, materials and insulators are used in cryogenics
  • what to consider when dealing with liquid helium
  • which sensors are suitable for low temperatures
  • how to design cryogenic systems and what specifications are to be observed 

Upon completion of the forum, you will be able to implement the relevant safety requirements on cryogenic systems.

Download Program PDF

Wednesday, September 18; 9:00 a.m. – 6:15 p.m.

1. Chair's welcome and introduction

Dr. Holger Neumann, Institute for Technical Physics, KIT – Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

2. Thermodynamic basics of refrigeration

  • Laws of thermodynamics for cryogenics
  • Basic cryogenic cycles (Joule-Thomson-, Brayton- and Claude-processes)
  • Samples refrigerators/liquefiers

Dr. Alexander Alekseev, Group R&D, Linde AG, Pullach

3. Industrial cryogen facilities

  • Requirements
  • Components
  • Design concepts
  • Application examples for different operating temperatures

Lars Blum, Linde Kryotechnik AG, CH-Pfungen

4. Refrigerants for cryogenics

  • Properties of LN2 , LHe and LH2
  • Supply and handling of refrigerants
  • LHe Dewar – side connection and pressure built up system
  • Information about the current global Helium supply situation
  • Examples of LN2 , LHe and LH2 applications

Siegfried Ebner, Supply Chain Management, Linde AG Division Linde Gas, Unterschleißheim

5. Material properties at low temperatures

  • Change of solid matter (or material) properties
    • Heat capacity
    • Heat conductivity
    • Thermal contraction
    • Embrittlement
    • Electrical conductance
  • Fluid properties
  • State equations
  • Property data programs for refrigerants
  • Superfluid helium

Prof. Christoph Haberstroh, Bitzer Chair of Refrigeration, Cryogenics and Compressor Technology, TU Dresden

6. Heat transfer to cryogens – cooling techniques

  • Heat transfer mechanisms
  • Heat transfer with and without phase transition
  • Heat transfer to He I and He II
  • Bath cooling and forced flow cooling

Dr. Holger Neumann

Thursday, September 19; 9:00 a.m. – 6:00 p.m.

7. Thermal insulation

  • Basics
  • Insulation techniques
  • Porous insulating materials
  • Vacuum
  • Vacuum powder-, multi-layer insulation

Dr. Holger Neumann

8. Specification, Design and Components of Cryogenic Infrastructure

  • Specifications and Requirements
  • Isometrics
  • Components
  • Conditioning Equipment for Liquid Gas
  • Examples of Applications

Ronald Dekker, Director, Demaco Holland bv, NL-Noord Scharwoude

9. Low temperature measurement and control techniques

  • Temperature measurement
  • Sensor choice and sensor installation
  • Measurement errors
  • Measurements of pressure, mass flow, displacement and level
  • Valves for cryogenics
  • Control loops with application examples

Dr. Holger Neumann

10. Safety in Cryogenics

  • Properties of cryogens and materials at low temperature
  • Risks in handling of cryogens
  • Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH)
  • Safety-relevant construction and operation advice
  • Directives and regulations

Dr. Holger Neumann

11. Cryocoolers for low temperature electronics and sensors

  • Requirements
  • Thermodynamic basics
  • Types of cryocoolers
  • Development trends

Dr. Ingo Rühlich, Head of Division Cryocoolers, AIM INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH, Heilbronn

Friday, September 20; 9:00 a.m. – 4:00 p.m.

12. Superconductive high field magnets

  • Generation of static magnetic fields
  • Comparison of resistive and superconductive systems
  • Challenges for the design and the operation of high field magnets (B > 20 T)
  • Requirements for superconductive magnets for highresolution NMR-spectroscopy

Pauline Leys, Institute for Technical Physics, KIT – Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

13. Cryogenic hydrogen technology

  • Hydrogen as potential future energy carrier
  • Available storage technologies, current development trends
  • Required cryogenic components
  • Achievable operating parameters
  • Hydrogen powered automobiles
  • Current trends

Prof. Christoph Haberstroh

14. Cryogenic vacuum technology and cryopumps

  • Vacuum basics
  • Engineering procedures for cryopumps
  • Commercial cryopumps
  • Design of cryopumps for special applications
  • Examples of tailor-made cryopumps

Dr. Thomas Giegerich, Institute for Technical Physics, KIT – Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

2:00 – 4:00 pm

+++ special event – identity card required

Visit of the cryogenic department of the Institute for Technical Physics, KIT – Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

Dr. Holger Neumann

Who is the technology forum aimed at?

The technology forum is designed for engineers and technicians who deal with or design industrial cryogenics systems in their daily work. Specifically addressed are employees from the following areas: 

  • Research
  • Development
  • Construction/Design 

They will receive a comprehensive overview of the basics and the latest developments of this ever-evolving and very specialised technology.

Leader of the technology forum

Dr.-Ing. Holger Neumann will lead the "Cryogenics” Forum. After completing his university studies and doctoral degree at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum, he currently works as head of cryogenics at the Institute for Technical Physics (ITEP) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. There, he is also a lecturer in the field of cryogenics. In addition, he teaches at the Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University as a lecturer for thermodynamics.

Sign up now for the forum

Do you want to find out more about the specialised field of cryogenics, update your knowledge and expand it? All this while learning about the latest developments in this dynamic field? Then don’t miss the "Cryogenics" Technology Forum.

Eventnumber: 05FO006

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